Sunday, October 30, 2011

campaign concluded

This campaign has ended, with the general consensus that it was a Norman victory.

Congratulations to the victor, and thanks to all who took part!

Saturday, September 3, 2011

a new map for Autumn 1004

The Welsh, paid off for the year, feast on imported foreign delicacies, like beef. The Normans feast, gloomily, on the turnips thrown at them by the Danes they are besieging (and probably some of the mounts of their deceased LH). The Irish have a quiet dinner of kale, the English a haunch of venison and some good French wine (they still have plenty of silver left), and the Scots their traditional celebratory meal of herring roasted in oats.

Ireland, will you rise from your table to seek trouble, or will you finish your tasty meal (perhaps seasoned up with a wee taste of goat)?

Friday, September 2, 2011

more summer developments and the beginning of Autumn 1004

The Normans decide to try widening their foothold in the North and return to the siege of Denmark. But clearly the Danes have laid in more beer and neeps, as they see off their invading cousins for a season (Normans, please designate an element to be lost).

The English watch events with interest but choose not to venture beyond their dooryards. So cautious are they that when a contingent of Welsh shepherds turn up calling "Gŵyl San Steffan!", the English give them a huge chest full of hacksilver. The shepherds, marvelling, go on their way.

That closes out the summer of 1004. Leaves begin to turn, there's a chill in the air, and

the wind whips up the waves so loud,
the ghost moon sails among the clouds,
turns the spear blades into silver,
on the border.

Autumn, 1004 arrives.

Monday, August 29, 2011

I'll post a new map shortly (we could use one). In the meantime, for your entertainment, some photo recaps of previous battles:

Scotland v. Wales: Autumn 1003. The third meeting between these armies, which show a pronounced pattern.

England v. Wales: Autumn 1003. One of the smallest DBA battles I've ever seen.

Danes v. Normans: Summer 1004. The latest battle in the campaign.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

war in the north

The Danes thought they would liberate Norway. The Normans were having none of that! A fleet of transports brought the chivalry of Fecamp, Coutances, and Caen to the fjords, just inj time to face down the cocky Vikings.

Pictures may be found here, but the long and the short of it was 2 Danish Bd and 2 Danish Sp dead, one of them the Danish general. Mighty against England, the Danes proved themselves (again) no match for mounted knights. Two more elements (Ps and Sp) were lost as penalty for losing their (third?) general in combat against the Normans, and the Danes slunk home to lick their wounds.

The Normans pull into a commanding lead, with the Scots a lagging second. The two also have almost the last intact armies, as most others are reduced to 2-3 elements.

The Normans have the next move, with which they can relocate their army from Norway if they choose, but they may not invade again this turn.

Saturday, August 13, 2011

recent events in Cumbria

The army of the Duke of Normandy rode north into Cumbria in the spring, determined to batter his arch-rival the King of Scotland into submission. The sun shone on the mail of his knights and glittered on the tips of the spears of his footmen.

Less glittered in the brown and green clad hosts of the Scots, but grim determination was seen in their mien, and a fierce willingness to battle could be seen in their eyes.

So determined was the King of Scots to come to grips with his enemy that, he too, marched from his strongholds and sought out the foe. They found them sooner than they expected, as a trap sprung by the cunning Normans caught the Scots away from their beloved hills and forests, out in the open.

Too pleased with his cleverness, the duke charged forward heedlessly, and many of his knights (2 Kn) were slain in their collision with the Scots spearmen. But once the fighting lines became broken and the melee more general, the weight of the armoured horsemen began to tell, aven as Norman footmen fell beneath Scots swords (1 Sp).

The Scots lost many of their stalwart footmen that day (2 Sp and 1 Ps), but it was the loss of a good half their horse (1 LH) that finally broke their spirit. The remaining Scots broke, falling back beyond the forth and the Tay to Scone, while the Normans settled in to plunder Cumbria (and the Lothians).

4-3 win for the Normans, who now control Cumbria and gain 1 PP for battle and 3 PP for control of Cumbria. Scots retire to Scone.

England's turn.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

busyness over the winter

New map for 1004.

The various nations rebuilt as follows

Danes: 1 Blade, 1 Spear, 1 Psiloi
Normans: All those lost in the siege of Aalborg
English: 3 Spear
Welsh: 1 Cavalry, 2 Psiloi
Irish: 2 Auxilia
Scots: none

In other news, Wales decided to join the growing empire of the Scots, submitting to what has now (with the exception of Brittany) become the Greater Pan-Celtic Co-Prosperity Sphere.

In further irony, it turns out the the Irish have the first move. Chris?

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Wales stays home

After initial thoughts of a foray into the western shires, the Welsh retire to their (few remaining) hills.

The Irish army (namely the general and his 2 I/C) play draughts (they would do nine mens morris, but they don't have enough men!) and so the turn ends.

Winter sets in with a vengeance, bringing ice and snow to many hearths. The Normans retire from their siege of Aalborg, and the Danes raise another toast to the power of walls to repel cavalry.

New forces are built from reserves; unless I've got something wrong, that will amount to:

Danes: 3 elements (giving them 8)
Normans: All those lost in the siege (giving them 12)
English: 3 elements (giving them 3)
Welsh: 3 elements (giving them 6)
Irish: 2 elements (giving them 2)
Scots: none (the Scots are already at 12)

Once players have let me have their recruiting schedule and their army starting locations, I will check to see who has the initiative for 1004.

Friday, July 8, 2011

not so mighty melees

A Korean proverb says, "In the battles of the whales, the shrimp are crushed." Who is crushed when the shrimp battle?

The Angles, restless and feeling as if their untold store of wealth should mean more than it apparently does to their neighbors, decided to take their tiny army and see if they could turn it to some advantage. They marched into the hills of Powys, hoping to administer a kicking to the Welsh while they were prostrate after their defeats at the hands of the Scots.

The Welsh, however, were more than a match for the English, disposing of them in a short battle (OK, what else would the Welsh fight? ;-) The English general was cut down (to size?) in the midst of his host (well, in the middle of a small group of armed men, anyway). The few remaining thegns fled in dismay, some disguising themselves as hermits or beggars or lepers, the rest settling for hiding in an old oak tree until the furious Welsh had passed and then going to hide in a swamp for the rest of their days. England had joined the Norse Irish in the unestimable Club of Not Having Any Army At All.

Wales was then left to consider its options, with the high road to Winchester and London looking very inviting. They had lost Dyfed to the Scots; what if they were to just seize some of the western shires in compensation?

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Wales retreats, attacked again!

Having taken their lumps from the Scots, the Welsh fell back to the quiet dales of Powys. Or so they thought.

But the English, who had been silently nursing their grievances after drubbings at the hands of the Danes and Normans, suddenly cast off the garments of woe and leapt into action, charging across the border into Wales! Still nursing the wounds of their last battle, the Welsh were confronted with a new and unexpected (though admittedly tiny) enemy army on another patch of their own soil!

New map below.

Thursday, June 30, 2011

Wales burns, Scots feast

The first move of Autumn 1003 was an attack by the Scots on the Welsh army in Dyfed. A full battle report will appear here shortly (with photos, even, one hopes! I know, promised before...), but it ended in another Welsh defeat and another dead Welsh general. The remnants of the Welsh army flee into the mountain fastnesses of Gwynedd (or possibly the quiet valleys of Powys--Mark's choice).

The Danes pass in their turn. Safe behind their ramparts (or so they think), they roast turnips, drink beer, and argue about the offside call in the latest Midtjylland v. Silkeborg match.

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

summer ends quietly

The Angles, the Welsh, and the armyless Irish all pass.

The autumn of 1003 begins with another Scots turn.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Danes not dead yet, but dedicated defenders

The army of the Normans sailed across summer seas from London to Denmark, hoping for an easy conquest. They were disappointed, as the defiant Danes held forth in their steading at Aalborg. Waving spears, axes, and the occasional mocking turnip at their southern cousins, the men of the northlands jeered at the frustrated horsemen whose valiant steeds gave them no advantage when charging palisades. Many of the lance-bearers perished before their duke called a halt to the escalade.

Saturday, June 4, 2011

the Scots on the rampage

The Scots pursue the Welsh to the environs of Dublin. The Welsh, bruised and battered, decline to give battle and retire to their homeland. The Scots trick their way into the city and run riot among the casks of strong brown porter piled on the quayside.

Current affairs on the board, as we wait for the Danes' move.

Friday, June 3, 2011

I'll post a fuller battle report (with a few pictures, even) later on, but the Battle of the Brans saw the Welsh defeated in a sharp and nearly bloodless action (1G-0). Their army loses two additional elements (Wales, please specify) and falls back on Dublin. Scots gain 3 Prestige and retain Armagh.

The armyless Irish are forced to pass, and we conclude Spring 1003.

Summer 1003 starts with, again, the Scots having the first go.

Friday, May 20, 2011

updating the map

Here's a current map, showing the impending tussle over the heights of Slieve Gullion.

Monday, May 16, 2011

crashing and bashing

It has been pointed out to me that, in the process of losing Armagh, the remaining Irish troops are eliminated. As vassals of the Scots, the Irish retain Armagh, but they will have to rebuild their army.

The Danes having passed, the Normans rode south from York to attack London. The English, perhaps having strayed out in the noonday sun too often, marched out to fight them in the open field. The Normans first stormed the small hillfort that the English had garrisoned and left their baggage in. The Normans slew the guards and looted the baggage, then fought back and forth, eventually killing off enough of the "small men" (skirmishers) that the few remaining English took to their heels. The Normans paraded into London and established their Duke as "King of All Britain". (2BUA-0, 4 Prestige for the Normans, the English lose 3 Sp, 1 Ps total, retain London, but become Norman vassals).

The English pass in their turn; it is now the turn of the Welsh.

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

1003 dawns bright and cheerful

Well, for some.

All armies are placed (though their locations are not revealed until they move or are encountered by moving armies). All reserves have been replenished.

The honour of first move for Spring 1003 (and for the other two seasons as well) goes to....

The Scots!

Saturday, April 30, 2011

end of 1002

This should reflect matters at the end of 1002.

I have arbitrarily deducted 2 Sp from England's active army to represent its last losses that were still unfulfilled.

The Danes may replace three elements.
The Normans may replace their only loss.
The English may replace three elements.
The Welsh may replace five elements.
The Norse Irish may replace two elements.
The Scots may replace all five of their losses.

Please send me your replacements and the starting position of your army for 1003. Once I have all those, I will check to see which player moves first in Spring 1003.

Friday, April 29, 2011

special report from our Scottish correspondent

The Welsh prince, full of bravado, landed at Mann to relieve the besieged Irish populace at Castle Mann. The Scots, seeking retribution for a disastrous Irish invasion of the Strathclyde, had been laying siege for months now.

The Scots elected to attack the Welsh Prince as the tide was out, keeping the Irish army on their boats all day.

King Malcolm III and the Eachernthiergna (Horse Lords) rode from left to right across the front of the pagan enemy encouraging his clansmen and thegn warriors forward from their traditional place of honor on the right of the Scottish line.

A dispatch of Scottish light horse fell to the javelin ambush of the Welsh psiloi, but the ensuing highlander charge drove them to the safety of the hillsides leaving the mounted Prince of Wales to face them in a stand off.

As the Prince of Wales vacillated across the field from the ferocious clansmen, Malcolm III and his horsemen slammed into the ranks of the Welshmen.

Inserting themselves between the water and the Welsh left flank, Malcolm's horsemen and thegns rolled up the befuddled and helpless Welshmen. Ignoring their pitiful cries for mercy, the Christian Scots dispatched thousands of the pagans and the fields of Mann ran red with blood. [Here your editor will interject the observation that, of course, the Welsh are all good Christians too, intent on slaughtering their neighbours to the greater glory of God.] The Welsh prince fled the field, leaving the Gracious Bishop of Villanova de Popecki to negotiate safe conduct for the Welsh camp followers and store of rarebit.

The main Scottish shield wall, watched the battle while eating cheese and drinking wine (again?).

Viewing this from the Castle of Mann, the besieged Irish, out of children to consume, surrendered to the gracious King Malcolm III, whose thegns shared their ales and venison with the wraiths who were once a thriving populace.

Let all take notice, it was the Irish who landed upon the coast of Scotland only a few months before. The gracious King Malcolm III welcomes the crowns of Wales and Ireland to call Him overlord and live full and pleasant lives free from the scourge of conflict and fried Mars bars.

Malcolm III
Rex and Nice Guy

the end of autumn 1002

We fought out the Battle of Mann last night between Wales and Scotland. I will defer to one of the combatants to provide a full report, but the outcome was a 4-1 win for the Scots who (after the Irish have their turn, in which they can do effectively nothing because they sent a contingent to the Mann battle) proceeded to complete their year-long subjugation of Mann by finally reducing its inhabitants to obedience.

I will provide an updated map over the weekend (and update the army lists and prestige totals). The Normans, the Welsh, and the Scots will be able to refill their armies from their reserves over the winter, but the Vikings (who can recruit only 3 elements), the English (who can recruit 3 but still need to lose 2 after a previous defeat), and the Norse Irish (who can recruit only 2 elements) will have some tough choices.

Also, could the Norse Irish please clarify their current status: have they voluntarily submitted to vassalship, and if so to whom? I have heard rumours, but I have seen no formal declaration by the Irish themselves.

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

mid-autumn, 1002

The leaves are falling in the singing vallies as the initiative falls to the men of Wales. What direction with they march before the snows of winter begin?

Monday, April 4, 2011

early autumn, 1002

Here's a new map, showing the results of the latest battle.

The Danes passed, the Normans attacked, so that brings us to the English turn.

Oh, and the Normans got 5 PP for the last battle (goal differential + 2 PP for a leader). Plus VPs for York (which the Danes lose). The losses were the sole Norman LH v. 1 Danish Bd and 3 Sp, yes?

Friday, March 25, 2011

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Autumn 1002

This brings us to the beginning of the third campaign turn, Autumn 1002. Danes? You are up!

oh, Mann!

The Scots continue to wreak havoc on the Isle of Man. But their brutal "shock and awe" tactics seem to leave the Manx unimpressed. Another element of Scots goes to the great Reserve in the sky while Mann remains resolutely Irish.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

late summer, 1002

The Irish desperately tried to fight off the fierce attack of the Welsh. They slew many warriors (the Welsh lose 2 Wb and 1 Ps). But the Welsh hacked and slashed their way through the ranks of the Gaels, slaying their general and many kern (Irish lose AxG, 2 Ax, 1 Ps). Many of the Irish broke and ran (Irish lose Bd, Ps as additional casualties). Wales acquires 3pp, one for the element loss differential and two for slaying the Irish general.

The Welsh proceeded to lay waste to Dublin, replacing all the churches with chapels, all the pubs with union halls, and all the potato fields with sheep pastures. Strong, stern men were seen in every quarter, alarming the populace with their ferocious, close-harmony singing and their profusion of consonant-like vowels.

Only waiting for the Scots to finish the turn.

Friday, March 4, 2011

a sticky end for a Danish (king)

The Normans moved by sea to the cliff-filled coast of Norway, where they laid claim to the fertile fields of Trondelag. The army of Denmark rushed back from York to contest the conquest, but the King of Denmark was slain early in the battle. Read a Norman account of their victory here.

Norway becomes Norman. The Vikings lose a Bd (and two Sp in the retreat).

England's turn!

Friday, February 25, 2011

rules correction

I beleive I may have given one or more players bad information. Several army lists contain options; those players selected options at the beginning of the campaign, and these choices will hold throughout the campaign. They cannot be changed between battles.

If players would like the option, we could agree that players can alter those choices over winter turns, starting out a new campaign year with the alternate choices (to the extent allowed by the size of one's army for the coming year). But they cannot be changed from turn to turn or from battle to battle.

the end of the beginning

The Irish invasion of Scotland met a rather bloody conclusion, as the Scots detached a small portion of their army to surround and attack the Irish, as the bulk of their spearmen stood on a nearby hill, snacked on cheese and pickle sandwiches, and watched the battle.

Four Irish bands were slain [will fill in which elements from my notes later], while only one band of Scottish skirmishers were slain. The Irish retreated precipitately, falling back to the Isle of Man. The Scots, given the opportunity to pursue their defeated enemy, leapt into their birlinns and coracles and followed. (Neither the initial Irish invasion nor the Scots counter-invasion lost any elements to the windy waves of the Irish Sea or to Corryvreckan--Cailleach Bheur was apparently sleeping.) But the Irish, loathe to fight further until they had repainted their shields and polished the brass hilts of their swords, moved back to Armagh. The Manx were, it appears, annoyed but not dismayed by the departure of their overlords and gave the arriving Scots a broad two fingers. (The Scots lose an element for a failed "siege".)

Thus arrived summer 1002. The Vikings made a few exploratory raids from their stronghold at York. They seem to have sent scouts, mounted on local horses, in several directions, checking the roads to the north and west. But in the end, they stayed in place, calculating many options but making no movements.

All wait now to see what move the Norman army makes, if any, from its base in Fecamp.

Friday, February 18, 2011

more warfare in the north!

While the Welsh watch their sheep (or their neighbours') peacefully grazing, the Irish sail off around (their) sea, stopping at various congenial watering holes for a bit of a sunbathe. Arriving on the coast of 'Cumbria' (taken rather broadly--I imagine to have a quickie marriage at Gretna Green or to do some shopping at The Lanes in Carlisle), they decide they like it and begin debating whether to call it a "holiday home" or "the first step in the great Irish Empire".

Interestingly enough, the King of Scotland happens to be in the area, on a holiday of his own with a few thousand close friends and retainers. It will be interesting to see how he reacts to the Irish dilemma.

Thursday, February 17, 2011

more death in the north

The attempt of the English to dislodge the Danes from York met with a significant reverse. Though the English fought more doughtily than in the first encounter, the result was much the same. Three more elements of fyrd were wiped out and this time the English camp was sacked!

Danes gain 4PP; English lose an additional two elements due to the loss of their camp.

It is now the turn of the Welsh.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

quick map update

Showing the change of control (temporary?) of York, Normans sitting in Fecamp counting their danegeld, and the English cruising up the Great North Road for a rematch.

Friday, February 11, 2011

ravens wheel over the moors

The armies of England and Denmark met in bloody battle! Your correspondent was not able to get copious detail on the battle (he was busy losing, badly, an off-script Breton invasion of Normandy), but he observed two dense battle lines rushing straight toward each other with a huge gap subsequently forming in the center of the English army as the Vikings under Sweyn carved their way deep into the Saxon ranks. Victory for the Danes, 0-4 (all Sp). The English withdrew to London. The Vikings gain 4PP for the battle and now hold York.

Not to be outdone, the Normans (cousins by blood to the Danes) announced their intention of invading England while English were down and bleeding on the canvas. England mollified them with huge chests of silver coin, so the Norman army stays in place and cannot attack English territory for the remainder of 1002. (Frank: I know I said last night that you would complete the move and remain in Winchester, but looking at the danegeld rule, it's supposed to take place before actual movement, so I think the Normans will remain in their starting location, Fecamp). England transfers 1 PP of monies to Normandy.

After Denmark and Normandy, England gets the next move. Aethelred, what will you?

(BTW, the turn order is clockwise; this year it began in the north, so it's Danes, Normans, English, Welsh, Irish, Scots. Next year it will begin with a random player but progress in the same order from that start.)

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

the first attack!

And the Danish fleet, which wintered among the Trondelager in Norway, sails for England, landing near York!

"From the fury of the Norsemen, o Lord..."

...will Aethelred's treasury deliver York?

Or the stout hearts and study shields of the fyrd?

(The English army has started at London, but can march north and defend York if the king orders them to.)

sequence of invasions

Just as a refresher for everyone, the allies/fighting sequence is as follows:

0. If England is being attacked, he may pay danegeld to halt the attack.

1. Player A, whose turn it is, asks for allies to attack Player B, with whom he is at war

2. Other players may promise contingents to help Player A
2.a. Players that have already attacked or started a new siege with their field army this turn cannot send contingents.
2.b. If a player who has not yet had his turn promises a contingent, even if no battle results, his field army cannot attack or begin a new siege in this turn.
2.c. Tributaries of Player A must comply if they can.

3. Player A decides if he wants to make the attack, given responses to #2.

4. If Player A makes the attack, Player B may ask for allies.
4.a. Players that have already attacked or started a new siege with their field army this turn cannot send contingents.
4.b. If a player who has not yet had his turn promises a contingent, even if no battle results, his field army cannot attack or begin a new siege in this turn.
4.c. Tributaries of Player B must comply if they can.

5. Player B decides what to do next
5.a. fight a field battle (to include moving up his army if it is not present)
5.b. stand siege (to include moving up his field army if it is not present or moving it away if it is)

The battle or siege is then resolved.

Ready, steady, go!

The Danes (aka the Vikings) led by Svein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, are the first player in 1002.

Monday, February 7, 2011

DBA Campaign Rules Clarifications/Changes for England on Her Knees

Declarations of War

No declarations of war are needed to attack another player or to send a contigent to attack or support him.


Contingents do not lose elements to storms at sea.


Battles and sieges are resolved in the player turn they are initiated, before the next player's orders are posted and resolved.

Armies and contingents retreating by sea do not lose elements to storms at sea.

Battle victory conditions are not adjusted for the size of armies; no matter how many elements an army starts a field battle with, it loses once it has lost its general or four elements and has lost more elements than the enemy.

Prestige is not adjusted for the size of armies. No matter how many elements an army starts a field battle with, it earns one point of prestige for each element it eliminates (as defined in the rules) in excess of its losses (plus points for generals and camps as specified in the rules).


A player cannot send a contingent to assist another player if his army has already moved that season and either a field battle or a siege resulted.

However, a player may send a contingent if his army remained stationary and conducted a continuing siege or if it moved but no combat resulted.

Likewise, if a player sends a contingent before his turn comes up, he may only move later in the turn, not invade.

If a player commits to send a contingent to assist another player, he is restricted as for sending it, whether or not a battle results and whether or not the contingent arrives during the course of the battle.


Supply must be drawn at the end of each movement a player executes, before any battle or siege, and at the end of all players' turns in autumn.

A tributary is not required to provide supply to his overlord's army.

Errors in Resolution

If players see an error in post-battle resolution (prestige points, remaining army rosters) they should alert the umpire immediately. If a battle is later resolved using an army list that contains an error from previous resolutions that has not been corrected, the result will stand.

Unfulfilled Losses

If a battle needs to be resolved and an army hasn't pruned additional elements since its last battle (for the loss of a general or camp in a previous battle or from a siege, the umpire will randomly choose the elements to be lost.

army selection

A reminder that players may choose which element will include their general before each battle, rather than it always being the element indicated in the army list (which may not always be available, depending on losses in prior combats).

One player asked about optional element choices. While one might interpret the campaign rules to mandate that players use the same set of option choices throughout the campaign, I'm inclined to let players choose each campaign year what options they are going with.

So, in addition to your starting location, please email me your choice for your optional elements. By my count (correct me if I'm wrong), the Danes and the Welsh have the fewest, at 1 choice each; the English and Irish have 2 each; the Scots have 3 choices; and the Normans have the greatest flexibility, with 4 choices.

Sunday, February 6, 2011

just to be clear...

Here's a link to the original campaign scenario on Fanaticus.

I think the only other change we've made that I haven't posted here is that we're doing away with declarations of war. The brutal treachery and deceit of the 11th century is being portrayed by allowing players to attack each other and send contingents at will. Only tributaries are bound not to attack their overlords and to supply them with contingents when requested.

map and a start-up post

So here is our starting map.

You will notice I have made a few small (but some of them significant) changes.

First of all, I've changed a few of the names, to make them more regional and less connected to a small town or city.

Second, I've added a marker for the North Sea (the circle between Cumbria and Denmark). This is not a region, and it does not count as a separate stage for movement--for example, a move from Norway to York (or Jarvik, as the Norwegians would know it), is just one step. It's only for simplicity of drawing lines.

Third, I've added a few sea links to represent my impressions based on reading about the era. Almost any place on the coast would be accessible to Vikings (or anyone else brave enough to travel by sea when the Vikings ruled them), but I've added just three links to represent major transit routes. One leads from Mann to Gywnedd (Vikings from Dublin, Galloway, the Sudreyar--the Hebrides and Mann--often raided and invaded Wales). Another leads from Norway to Moray, representing the Norse connections to the Nordreyar--Shetland and Orkney--and thence to the north of Scotland. The third runs from the North Sea to London, representing the Danes' ability to reach all of the English coast, if they chose.

Fourth, I've used symbols to show the terrain type of an area, since that is what the defender uses, no matter who owns it. Circles are Arable, squares are littoral, and triangles are Hilly. One could make a case for fudging those around (Moray and Armagh could be Hilly; Dublin could be Arable), but that's probably gilding the lily.